Еланский Сергей Николаевич
Окончил Биологический факультет МГУ имени М.В.Ломоносова в 1994 году.
В 1998 году защитил диссертацию на соискание ученой степени кандидата биологических наук по специальности "Микология" в Диссертационном совете при Биологическом факультете МГУ имени М.В.Ломоносова. Тема работы: "Структура популяций Phytophthora infestans в России".
В 2012 году защитил диссертацию на соискание ученой степени доктора биологических наук по специальности "Микология" в Диссертационном совете при Биологическом факультете МГУ имени М.В.Ломоносова. Тема работы: "Видовой состав и структура популяций возбудителей фитофтороза и альтернариоза картофеля и томата".
Видовой состав, структура популяций, биологические особенности, устойчивость к фунгицидам возбудителей болезней картофеля и томата. Разработка методов диагностики фитопатогенов.
С.Н.Еланский Видовой состав и структура популяций возбудителей фитофтороза и альтернариоза картофеля и томата. Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора биологических наук. Москва. 2012. [pdf, 0,6 Mb]
S. N. Elansky, V. P. Apryshko, D. I. Milyutina, B. E. Kozlovsky Resistance of Russian Strains of Phytophthora infestans to Fungicides Metalaxyl and Dimethomorph//Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin, 2007, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 11-14.[Full text, pdf, in English]
In total, 2000 P. infestans isolates collected
during 1988-2004 in different regions of Russia were tested for resistance
to metalaxyl. In the majority of field populations, the frequency of resistant
strains decreased after 1993-1994. This might be related to changes in
the potato industry in Russia. Potato production was concentrated in small
private gardens. The part of resistant strains in populations from small
private patches was less than that in large commercial fields. Small private
gardens became a great source of sensitive genotypes. In recent years,
the part of resistant strains in the majority of field populations was
less than 30%. A small number of resistant strains in a population occurs
even if there has been no treatment with metalaxyl-containing preparations
for a long time. In some populations, the frequency of resistant strains
has increased, depending on treatments. Variation in the level of resistance
to metalaxyl in one clonal lineage is shown. Resistant strains occurred
in potato leaves and tubers, and in tomato leaves. They were rare in tomato
fruits. Probably, the sensitive strains affecting fruits have a selective
advantage. More than 370 strains from different regions were tested for
resistance to dimethomorph-containing preparations. Resistant strains
were not detected.
Пляхневич М.П., Еланский С.Н. Генотипический анализ белорусских штаммов возбудителя фитофтороза картофеля// Вторая Всероссийская конференция "Современные проблемы иммунитета растений к вредным организмам" С.-Пб., 29 сентября - 2 октября 2008 г. С. 79-83 [Full text, pdf, in Russian]
Милютина Д.И. Генотипический состав популяций и устойчивость к некоторым фунгицидам штаммов Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary из республики Марий Эл и Московской области// Автореферат кандидатской диссертации, Москва, 2008 (руководитель - С.Н. Еланский) [Full text, pdf, in Russian]
Дьяков Ю.Т., Еланский С.Н. Популяционная генетика Phytophthora infestans. В кн.: Микология сегодня. Т. 1. Под ред. Дьякова Ю.Т., Сергеева Ю.В. М.: Национальная академия микологии, 2007. С. 107-139. [Full text, pdf, in Russian]
Mechanisms of intrapopulational variability of Phytophthora infestans (mutations, migrations, sexual and asexual recombination, gene introgressions, etc.), as well as physiological (mating type, virulence and resistance to fungicides) and molecular (polymorphism of DNA and proteins) methods of variability research are reviewed. Also structure of populations in different regions, genotypic structure of populations during the vegetation season and under the influence of cultivars, different fungicides, and host-plant (tomato or potato) are considered.
V.N. Zeiruk, K.A. Pshechenkov, S.N. Elansky, O.N. Davydenkova, S.V. Maltsev Influence of potato growth and storage conditions on the quality of fresh table potato and potato products in the central part of Russia // Pоtato production and innovative technologies. Ed.: A.J. Haverkort, B.V. Anisimov. Wageningen Academic Publishers, the Netherlands, 2007. Pp. 130-135.[Full text, pdf, in English]
Twelve potato cultivars with different maturing times (early (Zhukovskiy ranniy, Skoroplodniy, Udacha), mid-early (Belosnezhka, Iliynskiy, Nevskiy, Effect, Bronnickiy, Golubizna), and middle-late (Belousovskiy, Malinovka, Osen)), recommended for central Russia, have been selected by Potato Research Institute and North-Western Agriculture Research Institute and tested for their yield, quality and suitability for processing (production of potato chips and dried potato mash). The cultivars tested differ in the reaction for reconditioning and blanching. The treatment with Maxim, Kolfugo super, Vist (fumigant), and Spraut Stop preparations provided an improvement of the keeping quality, future yield, and decrease of the reducing sugars content. For the central Russia, characterizing by sod-podzol soils, the following potato cultivars were the most suitable for processing: Belosnezhka, Bronnickiy, Golubizna, Effect (for light clay soil), and Belosnezhka, Golubizna, Nevskiy, Effect (for moderate loam soil). Tubers, intended for the chip production, should be stored at 6-8 C and treated with Spraut-stop in January-February. Tubers, intended for the dried potato mash production, should be grown on the moderate loam soil and stored at 2-4 C.
S.N. Elansky, Yu.T. Dyakov, D.I. Milyutina, V.P. Apryshko, M.A. Pobedinskaya, A.V. Filippov, B.E. Kozlovsky, M.A. Kuznetsova, A.N. Rogozhin, N.V. Statsyuk Late blight of potato in Russia // Pоtato production and innovative technologies. Ed.: A.J. Haverkort, B.V. Anisimov. Wageningen Academic Publishers, the Netherlands, 2007. Pp. 262-274. [Full text, pdf, in English] [Full text, pdf, Русский]
Two types of Phytophthora infestans populations have been registered in Russia: (1) Siberia and Far East populations, characterizing by a very low genotypic variability, and (2) greatly varying European populations. The possible reasons for the low variability of Siberian and Far East populations of P. infestans are the use of a local seed material for the potato and tomato reproduction and the inclement weather conditions, that do not allow the soil wintering of oospores. On the contrary, European populations are influenced by the active exchange of the seed material and a permanent import of potato tubers and tomato fruits from abroad. In this paper we discuss the role of different mechanisms (mutations, migrations, sexual and parasexual recombinations) in the variability of P. infestans populations in Russia and also the influence of a fungicide application and an intraspecific specialization on the structure of these populations.
S.N. Elansky, D.I. Milyutina Heteroplasmosis in Phytophthora infestans //Genetika, 2007, Vol. 43, N 3, PP. 333-336. [Full text, pdf]
PCR and monozoospore plating was used to demonstrate a simultaneous presence of the mitochondria with mitochondrial DNA of haplotypes Ia and IIa in the micelium of several Phytophthora infestans strains.
Симаков Е.А., Анисимов Б.В., Склярова Н.П., Яшина И.М., Еланский С.Н. Сорта картофеля, возделываемые в России. Каталог. 2005 г.// Приложение к газете "Картофелевод", М.: 112 с. [Full text ]
S.N. Elansky, V.P. Apryshko, D.I. Milyutina, B.E. Kozlovsky Resistance of Russian Phytophthora infestans strains to fungicides Metalaxyl and Dimethomorph//Materials of the conference "Fungy and algae in biocenosis - 2006", Moscow, 2006, p. 56 - 58. [Full text]
S.N. Elansky, V.P. Apryshko Self-fertile Phytophthora infestans strains in field populations and their possible epidemiological role//Materials of the conference "Fungy in natural and antropogenic ecosistems", S. - Petersburg, 2005, p. 186 - 189. [Full text]
Research of the distribution of self-fertile strains in field populations and assessment of oospores formation in natural field samples with self-fertile and self-sterile mycelium were the aims of this work. Part of strains identified as A1 or A2 in probes with testers produced oospores in monoculture. Strains with A2 mating type produced oospores more often, then with A1. Self-fertile and self-sterile strains produced oospores in field samples with one lesion with equal frequencies.
Amatkhanova F.Kh., Dyakov Yu.T., Petrunina Ya.V., Pobedinskaya M.A., Elansky S.N., Kozlovskaya I.N., Kozlovsky B.E., Morozova E.V., Smirnov A.N. Characteristics of Phytophthora infestans populations on the Northern Caucasus// Mikologia I Phitopathologia, 2004, 38 (3), p. 71 - 78. [Full text]
Phytophthora infestans strains collected from the Northern Caucasus during 2001 and 2002 (3 field populations from Northern Osetia, Ingushetia, and Stavropol Region (Kislovodsk)) were analyzed on the mating types, resistance to fungicide metalaxyl, izozyme loci Pep-1, Pep-2, and Gpi, haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA, potato and tomato races, occurrence of the oospores. In the populations mating types A1 and A2 were in comparative ratio, rare oospores were found. Majority of tested isolates were sensitive to metalaxyl. Complex potato races predominated in all studied populations, virulence genes R1 - R4, R7, R8, R10 and R11 were often, R5, R6 and R9 were rare. Maximal race diversity was found in the population from Ingushetiya. Tomato race T0 also predominated in all investigated populations except population from Ingushetiya where ratio T0:T1 was about 1:1. All isolates were 100/100 at Gpi-1 locus. At locus Pep-1 the genotype 100/100 prevailed, the frequency of heterozygote 92/100 was very low (4-14%). At locus Pep-2 genotype 100/100 also prevailed, but heterozygote 100/112 occurred often, too. The ratio of Pep-2 genotypes is in accordance with Hardy-Wainberg equilibrium at 95% level of significance. Mitochondrial haplotypes IIa and Ia occurred in the populations, other described haplotypes were not found. Genotype 112/112 was the rarest; it was identified only in the Northern Osetiya and Ingushetiya (12% and 9% respectively). So, it evidences about possibility of some income of sexual reproduction in P. infestans populations diversity in the Northern Caucasus.
S. chartarum is one of those fungi, which
induce human indisposition. Casual relationship between human indisposition
caused by IAQ problems and the level of S. chartarum contamination was
repeatedly established. In the present study our objectives were to analyze
the growth of the fungi on partly immersed in water natural and man-made
materials and search of possible correlations between origin of the strains,
their morphological features, resistance to fungicides, toxicity (test
with Paramecium caudatum) and genome structure. In total, 51 strains collected
in different regions of Russia were analysed.
Elansky S.N., Smirnov A.N., Kuznetsov S.A., Apryshko V.P., Dyakov Yu.T. Possible reasons for changing of structure of Phytophthora infestans populations in European part of Russia in the end of 20 - beginning of 21 century// Materials of the conference "Biology, ecology and sistematics of fungy in natural ecosystems and agrophytocenosys", Minsk, 2004, P. 96-100.[Full text]
Great changes in Phytophthora infestans populations in Europe and Russia occurred during last 25 years. They were caused by increasing of aggressiveness and virulence of isolates from tomato to potato, increasing of genotypic diversity in field populations, early start of outbreaks, tomato fields as sources of primary infection, and high percent of T1 race on potato. Sources of these changes and role of sexual process and oospores formation are discussed in the article.
Elansky S.N., Ryzhkin D.V. Variations of airborne fungal spores concentrations in surface air of Moscow city// Materials of the conference "Biology, ecology and sistematics of fungy in natural ecosystems and agrophytocenosys", Minsk, 2004, P. 92-96.[Full text]
Variations of fungal spores concentration in surface air of Moscow are discussed in the article. Spores of genus Cladosporium prevail in the atmosphere of Moscow. Their concentration has maximum in July-August. Basidiospores are the second of the largest groups in Moscow air. Their concentration also has maximum in July-August. Third group, Ascospores, has several different maximums. Total fungal spore concentration had the maximum from the end of July till the middle of September. Daily variations of spore content in the atmosphere vary for different fungal taxa. Concentration of conidia of deuteromycetes has maximum at 15-18 hours, but basidiospores - at 4-10 h. It can be connected with the differences in mechanisms of spore release in various fungal taxa. Annual variations were also appreciable.
Growth of Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb.) Hughes strains on plant and artificial materials in contact with water was analysed. After 84 days exposition at 25 °C material samples (35 ? 240 mm) were divided into segments (60 mm length): A - the lower segment under the water level, B - directly over the water level, C and D - accordingly over B and C. Mycelium occupation of each segment was separately evaluated. Maximum fungal growth was on the segment B directly contacting with water, on segment A in most cases the lack of growth was observed. Fungal occupation of the segments C and D positively correlated with water capacity of the material. Mycelium occupation of the higher segments was quite weak, though the humidity was 100 %. The rate of growth on artificial materials was different for each tested S. chartarum strain. These differences were not observed when fungi grew on natural materials. The most suitable plant materials were stems and seeds of grain: oats, wheat, couch grass. The growth was weaker on other plant remnants: maple leaves, barberry leaves and branches, rapeseeds, trefoil seeds, St.-Johns wort. In all cases the optimal temperature for growth was 25 °C.
Second locus of peptidase (Pep-2) is useful, cheap and quite a technically simple marker that can be used for comparative analysis of P. infestans strains and populations. This polymorphic locus is represented by two alleles 100 and 112, all combinations from them commonly occur in the field populations. Genetic diversity for Pep-2 locus in the majority of populations is higher than for Pep-1. The use of Pep-2 in the complex with other markers such as mating type and Pep-1 allows to investigate the clonal structure of populations, the ways of spreading of pathogen and possible sources of infection. The complex of aforementioned features is promising for use in regional and interregional databases on late blight agent. The comparative analysis of Russian and Belorussian populations at mating type, Pep-1 and Pep-2 elucidated that the majority of investigated populations had the genotypes A1, 100/100, 100/100; A2, 100/100, 100/100, and A1, 100/100, 100/112. The genotypes А2, 100/100, 100/112 and А1, 100/100, 112/112 were more rare. Other possible genotypes were found for a few isolates in different populations or were absent.
Several specimens of Lycopersicon hirsutum
were tested on the resistance to late blight in laboratory and under the
field conditions in the Moscow region. Strains of Phytophthora infestans
were isolated from neighbored potato, tomato and L. hirsutum plots of
tested field. Blighted samples of L. hirsutum leaves were assessed on
the presence of oospores.
Changes in aggressiveness of two P. infestans
isolates collected from potato (tomato race Т0) and tomato (race Т1) were
investigated at consecutive passages on leaves of potato and tomato. Aggressiveness
of tested isolates increased during passages on leaves of both host-plants
with the subsequent plateau effect.
The tasks of the work were the identification
of conservative DNA fragments similar to A - B box of Short Interspersed
Nuclear Elements (SINEs) in Phytophthora infestans genome, selection of
PCR-primer for these DNA fragments, and comparative analysis of P. infestans
and Stachybotrys chartarum isolates from distant regions using this primer.
A search for SINE-similar elements was performed with primers to known
A and B boxes of SINEs from other organisms. After PCR-amplification DNA
fragments of different sizes were identified. Six DNA fragments (45 -
51 bp) were cloned in E. coli and sequenced. All 6 clones had similar
25-nucleotide part that includes B box. This sequence was used to create
revSINE (5'-GGGATCGAACCAGAAGTGACTACGG-3') primer.
Phytophthora infestans samples were collected during 1997and 1998 at multiple sites in Russia from Sakhalin Island in the Far East across Siberia (nine sites, 160 isolates) to the Moscow region (four sites, 325 isolates). Additionally, 12 isolates that were obtained previously were analyzed. All isolates were analyzed for mating type, and sensitivity to metalaxyl. Isolates from within any of the nine sites outside of the Moscow region were monomorphic for mating type and nearly monomorphic for metalaxyl resistance. In contrast, both A1 and A2 isolates were detected in the Moscow region, and these isolates were also polymorphic for metalaxyl resistance. In two sites in Siberia only A2 mating type strains were detected, in the other six sites in Siberia and in Sakhalin Island, only A1 mating types were detected. A subset of isolates (n=191) was also analyzed for pathotype. All isolates were highly complex (many compatibilities, with a mean value of compatibility of ca 8.4 (max = 10). All isolates (n = 43) from Sakhalin Island were compatible with all 10 of the R-genes tested. A further subset of isolates (n= 70, including 12 isolates collected before 1997) was analyzed for genotype at the Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and Peptidase loci, mtDNA haplotypes, and RFLP pattern using the RG57 probe. The US-1 clonal lineage (previously dominant) was not detected in the 1997-1998 sample. The population of P. infestans near Moscow in 1997 and 1998 was highly diverse with 15 unique genotypes (including both mating types) among a sample of 18 isolates. In contrast the populations of P. infestans in Siberia had limited diversity, with only three multilocus genotypes detected and most populations were dominated by the SIB-1 clonal lineage. This lineage accounted for 31of the 39 strains collected in Siberia that were assayed for multilocus genotype.
After two-step mutagenesis with nitrosomethyl urea the resistant to dimethomorph (DMM) mutants of Phytophthora infestans were obtained. The frequencies of mutations were low – 6,27 x 10-7 in their first step-mutagenesis and 6,4 x 10-8 – in the second. Lethal concentrations of DMM were increased from 2 mg/l to 8 mg/l. Fitness of mutants in vitro and in planta was low. Most of F1 hybrids between resistant to DMM and sensitive strains were phenotypic similar to sensitive parent. The rare resistant hybrid strains have decreasing fitness, teratic low-germinated sporangia, and were instable (on media without DMM they reverted to sensitivity and normal growth). The anomalous segregation in the F1 hyrids was analysed regarding to mating type inheritance, linkage between mating type and dimR loci, and death of resistant hybrids.
Смирнов А.Н., Кузнецов С.А., Еланский С.Н. Изучение биологии возбудителя фитофтороза картофеля// Доклады ТСХА, 2001, вып. 273, ч. 1, с. 226-232. [Full text]
In 1997 336 samples from blighted potato leaves of 6 field populations, 123 samples from blighted tomato leaves and fruits of 4 field populations were investigated to detect Phytophthora infestans oospores. The oospores were found in 10% samples from potato leaves, 6% from tomato leaves, and 49% from tomato fruits. Before checking for oospores the P. infestans isolates were collected from the sample to pure culture and their mating types were investigated. The analysis of distributions of oospores and sporangia in the blighted samples as well as of the mating type of these isolates provided the evidence that some oospores found in Moscow region can have hibrid (outcrossed) origin and others - non hybrid origin.
Analysis of 110 strains of Phytophthora infestans collected in 1996 - 1997 in Russia revealed a very low concentration of dimetomorph resistant isolates. No cross resistant to metalaxyl and dimethomorph isolates have been found but polyresistant strains appeared in metalaxyl resistant populations after treatment with dimethomorph. In comparison to dimethomorph sensitive strains resistant isolates grew slowly on ryeA arar and lost their resistance after several passages. The growth rate increase correlates with with the loss of resistance to dimethomorph. Repeated treatment of potato plots with dimethomorph has a selective effect on the population increasing the rate of resistant clones. Low adapting capasity of resistant strains reduces the hazard of their accumulation.
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